PEPCK biochemistry
Mammalian and avian liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Alternate substrates and inhibition by analogues of oxaloacetate. Ash DE, Emig FA, Chowdhury SA, Satoh Y, Schramm VL. J Biol Chem. 1990 May 5;265(13):7377-84.

Gluconeogenesis

Separate contribution of diabetes, total fat mass, and fat topography to glucose production, gluconeogenesis, and glycogenolysis. Gastaldelli A, Miyazaki Y, Pettiti M, Buzzigoli E, Mahankali S, Ferrannini E, DeFronzo RA. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Aug;89(8):3914-21. [PDF]

Obesity and type 2 diabetes impair insulin-induced suppression of glycogenolysis as well as gluconeogenesis. Basu R, Chandramouli V, Dicke B, Landau B, Rizza R. Diabetes. 2005 Jul;54(7):1942-8. [PDF]

Effects of free fatty acids on gluconeogenesis and autoregulation of glucose production in type 2 diabetes. Boden G, Chen X, Capulong E, Mozzoli M. Diabetes. 2001 Apr;50(4):810-6. [PDF]

The effect of rosiglitazone on the liver: decreased gluconeogenesis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Gastaldelli A, Miyazaki Y, Pettiti M, Santini E, Ciociaro D, Defronzo RA, Ferrannini E.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Mar;91(3):806-12.

Effect of physiological hyperinsulinemia on gluconeogenesis in nondiabetic subjects and in type 2 diabetic patients. Gastaldelli A, Toschi E, Pettiti M, Frascerra S, Quinones-Galvan A, Sironi AM, Natali A, Ferrannini E. Diabetes. 2001 Aug;50(8):1807-12. [PDF]

Glyceoneogenesis

Glyceroneogenesis revisited. Hanson RW, Reshef L. Biochimie. 2003 Dec;85(12):1199-205.

Glyceroneogenesis and the triglyceride/fatty acid cycle. Reshef L, Olswang Y, Cassuto H, Blum B, Croniger CM, Kalhan SC, Tilghman SM, Hanson RW. J Biol Chem. 2003 Aug 15;278(33):30413-6  [PDF]

The effect of pioglitazone on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma target genes related to lipid storage in vivo.Bogacka I, Xie H, Bray GA, Smith SR.  Diabetes Care. 2004 Jul;27(7):1660-7. [PDF]

Thiazolidinediones block fatty acid release by inducing glyceroneogenesis in fat cells. Tordjman J, Chauvet G, Quette J, Beale EG, Forest C, Antoine B. J Biol Chem. 2003 May 23;278(21):18785-90. [PDF]

The effect of pioglitazone on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma target genes related to lipid storage in vivo. Bogacka I, Xie H, Bray GA, Smith SR. Diabetes Care. 2004 Jul;27(7):1660-7. [PDF]

Effects of free fatty acids per se on glucose production, gluconeogenesis, and glycogenolysis. Staehr P, Hother-Nielsen O, Landau BR, Chandramouli V, Holst JJ, Beck-Nielsen H. Diabetes. 2003 Feb;52(2):260-7. [PDF]

PEPCK transcription

Nutrient control of glucose homeostasis through a complex of PGC-1alpha and SIRT Nature 434, 113-118 (3 March 2005)


What is a cAMP response unit? Roesler WJ. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2000 Apr 25;162(1-2):1-7.

Mechanism of increased renal gene expression during metabolic acidosis.  Curthoys NP, Gstraunthaler G.  Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001 Sep;281(3):F381-90. [PDF]

Regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) gene expression. Hanson RW, Reshef L. Annu Rev Biochem. 1997;66:581-611. [PDF]

Identification of multiple protein binding domains in the promoter-regulatory region of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) gene. Roesler WJ, Vandenbark GR, Hanson RW.  J Biol Chem. 1989 Jun 5;264(16):9657-64.

The repression of hormone-activated PEPCK gene expression by glucose is insulin-independent but requires glucose metabolism.  Scott DK, O'Doherty RM, Stafford JM, Newgard CB, Granner DK.  J Biol Chem. 1998 Sep 11;273(37):24145-51. [PDF]

Further characterization of the glucocorticoid response unit in the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene. The role of the glucocorticoid receptor-binding sites. Scott DK, Stromstedt PE, Wang JC, Granner DK. Mol Endocrinol. 1998 Apr;12(4):482-91. [PDF]

Characterization of a complex glucocorticoid response unit in the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene. Imai E, Stromstedt PE, Quinn PG, Carlstedt-Duke J, Gustafsson JA, Granner DK. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Sep;10(9):4712-9. [PDF]

The repression of hormone-activated PEPCK gene expression by glucose is insulin-independent but requires glucose metabolism.  Scott DK, O'Doherty RM, Stafford JM, Newgard CB, Granner DK.  J Biol Chem. 1998 Sep 11;273(37):24145-51. [PDF]

PEPCK and diabetes

Glucocorticoids regulate the induction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) gene transcription during diabetes. Friedman JE, Yun JS, Patel YM, McGrane MM, Hanson RW. J Biol Chem. 1993 Jun 15;268(17):12952-7.

Cataplerosis and Anaplerosis

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and the critical role of cataplerosis in the control of hepatic metabolism. Hakimi P, Johnson MT, Yang J, Lepage DF, Conlon RA, Kalhan SC, Reshef L, Tilghman SM, Hanson RW. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2005 Nov 21;2:33. [PDF]

The key role of anaplerosis and cataplerosis for citric acid cycle function. Owen OE, Kalhan SC, Hanson RW.  J Biol Chem. 2002 Aug 23;277(34):30409-12 [PDF]

Cerebral metabolism of [1,2-13C2]acetate as detected by in vivo and in vitro 13C NMR. Cerdan S, Kunnecke B, Seelig J.  J Biol Chem. 1990 Aug 5;265(22):12916-26.

Ketogenic Diet

Eplepsy Foundation Ketogenic Diet page

The efficacy of the ketogenic diet-1998: a prospective evaluation of intervention in 150 children. Freeman JM, Vining EP, Pillas DJ, Pyzik PL, Casey JC, Kelly LM. Pediatrics. 1998 Dec;102(6):1358-63. [PDF]

2-DEOXYGLUCOSE EXERTS ANTICONVULSANT AND ANTIEPILEPTIC ACTIONS IN EXPERIMENTAL EPILEPSY MODELS  C. E. Stafstrom, S. M. Kriegler, M. T. Valley, J. C. Ockuly, A. S. Roopra, and T. P. Sutula   Epilepsia Volume 46 Page 268  -October 2005

Efficacy of the Atkins diet as therapy for intractable epilepsy. Kossoff EH, Krauss GL, McGrogan JR, Freeman JM. Neurology. 2003 Dec 23;61(12):1789-91.

A modified Atkins diet is effective for the treatment of intractable pediatric epilepsy. Kossoff EH, McGrogan JR, Bluml RM, Pillas DJ, Rubenstein JE, Vining EP. Epilepsia. 2006 Feb;47(2):421-4.


Glucose and synaptic transmission

Endogenous monocarboxylates sustain hippocampal synaptic function and morphological integrity during energy deprivation. Izumi Y, Benz AM, Katsuki H, Zorumski CF.  J Neurosci. 1997 Dec 15;17(24):9448-57. [PDF]

GTP and synaptic transmission

Vesicle endocytosis requires dynamin-dependent GTP hydrolysis at a fast CNS synapse. Yamashita T, Hige T, Takahashi T.  Science. 2005 Jan 7;307(5706):124-7.

Minimum essential factors required for vesicle mobilization at hippocampal synapses. Mozhayeva MG, Matos MF, Liu X, Kavalali ET. J Neurosci. 2004 Feb 18;24(7):1680-8. [PDF]

The role of GTP-binding protein activity in fast central synaptic transmission. Takahashi T, Hori T, Kajikawa Y, Tsujimoto T.  Science. 2000 Jul 21;289(5478):460-3.

Myristyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and octadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide are surface-active small molecule dynamin inhibitors that block endocytosis mediated by dynamin I or dynamin II.     Quan A, McGeachie AB, Keating DJ, van Dam EM, Rusak J, Chau N, Malladi CS, Chen C, McCluskey A, Cousin MA, Robinson PJ.  Mol Pharmacol. 2007 Dec;72(6):1425-39.




Synaptic transmission and epilepsy

Statistical model relating CA3 burst probability to recovery from burst-induced depression at recurrent collateral synapses. Staley KJ, Bains JS, Yee A, Hellier J, Longacher JM.  J Neurophysiol. 2001 Dec;86(6):2736-47. [PDF]


Presynaptic modulation of CA3 network activity. Staley KJ, Longacher M, Bains JS, Yee A. Nat Neurosci. 1998 Jul;1(3):201-9.

Triheptanoin and Other Anaplerotic Substrates

Effects of short-term and long-term treatment with medium- and long-chain triglycerides ketogenic diet on cortical spreading depression in young rats.
de Almeida Rabello Oliveira M, da Rocha Ataíde T, de Oliveira SL, de Melo Lucena AL, de Lira CE, Soares AA, de Almeida CB, Ximenes-da-Silva A.
Neurosci Lett. 2008 Mar 21;434(1):66-70.

Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency: clinical and biochemical response to anaplerotic diet therapy.
Mochel F, DeLonlay P, Touati G, Brunengraber H, Kinman RP, Rabier D, Roe CR, Saudubray JM.
Mol Genet Metab. 2005 Apr;84(4):305-12.

Parenteral and enteral metabolism of anaplerotic triheptanoin in normal rats
Renée P. Kinman,1,2 Takhar Kasumov,2 Kathryn A. Jobbins,2 Katherine R. Thomas,2 Jillian E. Adams,2 Lisa N. Brunengraber,2 Gerd Kutz,3 Wolf-Ulrich Brewer,4 Charles R. Roe,5 and Henri Brunengraber
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291: E860-E866, 2006.

Copyright 2011 Steve Kriegler